The current review focuses on small-holders in mixed crop-livestock systems and pastoralist systems and stresses the importance on taking all the three sustainability aspects into account: social, economic and environmental. These systems have in general low productivity and the farmers in these systems are often politi- cally weak, several of them poor and suffer from food insecurity and poor nutrition. However, technical and policy interventions – such as better animal health, feed, genetics combined with access to markets and improved land rights – can improve their situation. This so called sustainable intensification of the livestock sector contributes to more efficient use of natural resources, reduced green house gas emissions per unit food produced, increases the farmers incomes and ultimately improves their food security and nutrition.

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